Indigenous African religions are by nature plural, varied, and usually informed by one’s ethnic identity, where one’s family came from in Africa. G.C. London, 1927. Berkeley, Calif., 1972. Hammond-Tooke, W. David. The bishops of southern Africa have appointed another woman to head their conference’s general secretariat, succeeding a religious sister who had served in that position for eight years. The mother had then confessed, complying with the instructions of the midwives and giving her account precisely in terms of current beliefs; she was now being cleansed, and the baby was nursing all right. Order exists in the universe, and the natural and social orders are felt to be interrelated: As in King Lear, disharmony in the world of humans is reflected both in the world of physical elements and in the tempest within a person's mind—in madness. The data comes from the Pew Research Center and it shows that Christians make up 50.9% of Africa’s population, followed by Muslims at 43.3% and others with 5.8%. Sets witch beliefs in comparative perspective. The Plateau Tonga of Northern Rhodesia. Citations in the Oxford English Dictionary from the fourteenth century on reveal two distinct trends of common usage for the words rite (ritua…, Turner, Victor The common people know little of the details; they are aware only that a celebration has taken place. Facts about African Religion 4: the religions in Africa. London, 1963. The bishops of southern Africa have appointed another woman to head their conference’s general secretariat, succeeding a religious sister who had served in that position for eight years. Voodoo is an animist religion that consecrates a cult to Loas (gods) and to the ancestors—the cult of ancestors constitutes a system of religi…, Tears The Forest of Symbols. Other major religious groups are Hindus, Muslims and Jews. Those closest to their shades, and hence most aware of the numinous, are the hereditary priests, or rainmakers, and diviners who have been "called" and who practice as mediums. The ritual creates a fraternity or sorority of those who have undergone the ordeal: Those who have not undergone it are outsiders, but all who have endured are free to participate in the admonition of their juniors. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Some of the major ethnic South Africans include Zulu, Basotho, Venda, Xhosa, … New York, 1970. The place of celebration has moved as groups of kinsmen have moved, as chiefs have been installed and later buried, and as trees planted as boundary marks or on graves have spread into thickets. By far the best study of the symbolism of an Nguni people (on the southeast coast), written by a missionary who grew up speaking Zulu as a second language. The Ngonde (Malawi) chant: "Let us dance, let us fight that the homesteads may be peaceful.… Let us throw out the ashes that death may leave the homesteads and they be at peace." Even though it may be a stranger spirit who possesses the medium, she remains in close contact with her family shades. The Xhosa cattle killing has been seen by various writers as a plot of the chiefs to drive the Xhosa to war, as a plot of the whites to destroy the Xhosa, and as a resistance movement. Occasionally, however, a medium may influence public events, as did Nongqause, the Xhosa girl who in 1856 urged all Xhosa on the eastern frontier of the Cape of Good Hope to kill their cattle and destroy their grain, prophesying that when they did so the dead would rise up and sweep the whites into the sea, or the Shona medium who in 1898 urged resistance against whites in what is now Zimbabwe. African Ideas of God. Their presence is so real in Pondoland that (into the twentieth century) a wife of the homestead carefully avoids the yard and the byre where men sit, even at night, lest the shades be there, and as she walks through a river associated with her husband's clan she lets her skirts trail in the water, for to tuck up her skirts would insult his shades. Orientation Firsthand accounts are meager, but there is evidence that an awareness of the numinous exists. The similarity to ancient Hebrew rituals is obvious, although published reports from southern Africa make no mention of any symbolism having to do with driving out a scapegoat. PAGES: 450 African Studies No. Essays based on firsthand observation. A penetrating study based on Taylor's experience in Uganda and elsewhere in Africa. Hence attention must focus on the rituals celebrated. Over many centuries Hebrew, Christian, and Islamic ideas of God, with their symbolism of monotheism and of God on high, have impinged on other ideas in Africa, notably the association of the dead with the earth; in some places a process of change may be traced over the past hundred years. Questions? Any quarrels must be admitted and resolved. Strict lock-down regulations, that have been implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic, have broad implications for well-being. It caused great hardship to black people and was widely condemned. There is no evidence that such revivalist movements began in the colonial period: They may well have happened periodically before that, although certain characteristics of movements in colonial times, notably millennialism, were related to Christian missionary teaching. There is always a gap between the values expressed and everyday practice, but ideals and ideas of ultimate reality are embodied in ritual action. Among the Nguni peoples of the southeast coast a commemoration dinner may replace the rite of "bringing home" the shade and implies an awareness of the continuing existence of the dead which is much greater than that experienced by many contemporary Europeans and Americans. It is thought to be embodied in a serpent—a "python in the belly" (Nyakyusa), a "snake of the women" (Pondo); or it takes the form of a baboon, or a fabulous hairy being with exaggerated sexual organs (Xhosa), and so forth. London, 1911. Victor Counted, Western Sydney University; Kenneth Pargament, Bowling Green State University, and Richard G. Cowden, Harvard University. Wilson, Monica. J. Matthew Schoffeleers has written about the spread of the Mbona cult with the development of Mangʾanga chiefdoms in Malawi. This article has classed maturity rituals as religious, since they are explicitly concerned with fertility, which in turn is controlled by the shades; often they involve an offering and invocation to the shades, whose blessings are sought. London, 1970. Harris, Grace Gredys. "A Modern Movement of Witch-finders." Great numbers of people come to mourn, and, relative to the family's earnings, enormous sums are spent on traveling, funeral expenses, and food for guests. Wilson, Monica. Manchester, 1954. Evidence on a very conservative section of Xhosa on the southeast coast. Turner, Victor. ." Christianity is the dominant religion in South Africa, with almost 80% of the population in 2001 professing to be Christian. An account of the ritual and symbolism of the Zaramo of the Tanzanian coast. South Africa is a multi-religious country. When an offering is made, an officiant, usually the senior man of the lineage, or occasionally a dead father's sister or a grandmother of the homestead, addresses the shades, calling them by name, explaining why the offering has been made—that is, what is troubling the homestead—and requesting help. In Les Africains, edited by Charles-André Julien et al., vol. Often there are taboo words and riddles with a set answer, knowledge of which are taken as proof of initiation. Oxford, 1969. Yet, few linguistic or conceptual categories of…, Voodoo Shows that the Xhosa cattle killing of 1856 was one of a series led by prophets who urged purification from witchcraft and sacrifice to the shades. 205–253. Analysis of ritual is important in any study of religion, for ritual enshrines the dogma and values of participants. 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